Dry Eye Diseases – a review of current and emerging treatment modalities
Keywords:Dry eye disease, Tears, Sicca, Limbal Stem Graft
Dry eye disease (DED), also known as dry eye syndrome (DES), and kerato-conjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is a common multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and its associated tear film production. The condition may cause ocular discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. This often results in discomfort to the patient. This article reviews DED with respect to aetiology, presentations and current management as well as new trends in the diagnosis and management of this common disorder.
This review used extensive literature search of existing body of knowledge and current research findings as presented at conferences and workshops. We have explored the current thinking and trends in this common ocular disorder outlining its causes, presentation and management. What the future portends in the area of research and innovative management strategies is also discussed.
The review showed that early detection of this disorder can be achieved by a high index of suspicion, appropriate history taking and correct investigations. It is most often managed using benzalkonium chloride (BAK-rich) tear substitutes even though preservative-free eye medications are preferred where available and affordable.
Like other health challenges in our clime, late presentation is not uncommon. Penetrating keratoplasty for non-regressing superficial and deep corneal vascularization may be necessary.